PAST SIMPLE: We use past simple to talk about actions that start and finished in the past
Ex: He called me and told me to go, but when I arrived he wasn’t there.
PAST CONTINUOUS: We use past continuous to talk about something than start then continue but finish in the past
Ex: When she opened the door, we were talking about her.
PAST PERFECT SIMPLE: We use past perfect simple to talk about an earlier past that comes before the past simple
Ex: I realised that I had been there before.
DURATON FORM EARLIER IN THE PAST (stative verbs) We use the past perfect simple with stative verbs to talk about states or situations that had started earlier in the past.
Ex: She told me she had always hated her sister.
PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS: We use past perfect continuous when we want to talk about long continuous verbs that started earlier in the past
Ex: he had been walking for 2 hours
USED TO + INFINITIVE
We use used to +infinitive when we want to talk about actions that we repeated in the past
Ex: As a child I used to be blond.
SITUATIONS OR STATES THAT ARE NOT LONGER TRUE: We use this when we talk about a situation or state that it was true in the past but is no longer true now
Ex: We usually eat out on Saturday.
BE USED TO
Is when you are accustomed doing something maybe it’s something new, difficult or strange, but you have been doing it for a long time and now you don t find it strange difficult or new. It’s normally used in simple tenses.
Ex: When I started working, it was hard to get up at 6 a.m., but now I’m used to it.
GET USED TO
Is the process of you becoming accustomed to something.
Ex: It might be difficult at first, but you’ll get used to driving on the left.
USED TO + INF, BE/GET USED + ING
The past verb used to is always followed by infinitive. The to is part form de infinitive
Ex: I used to play basketball when I was in school.
After be used to or get used to we use a ing or a noun verb in this the to is part of the preposition no of the infinitive.
Ex: I’m not used to this cold and rainy weather.
POSITION OF ADVERBS AND ADVERBS PHRASES
We put adverbs and adverbs phrases in three postitions inicial position,mis position and final position,
Initial: at the beginning of a phrase
Ex: Sometimes I feel a bit sick.
Yesterday I went to the supermarket
Final postiton: at the end of a word
Ex: She arrived very earlier.
He came very early
She walks slow
In his position is where the adverbs are usually placed. Is before the main verb, we usuaññy place it after the be verb and after the auxiliary verb.
Ex: He always answer the phone
ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY
We usually place adverbs of frequency in the mid position but in some exceptions we place it in the initial position.
They always play football
Sometimes he can be very mean
We use indirect questions when we want to be formal we can use the expesions: could you tell me, I wonder if, would you mind.
Ex: What day is it? (direct question)
Could you tell me what day it is? (indirect question)
subject + verb
We use to infinitive To express purpose:
Ex: I’ll call her to tell herif she was fine.
After too/enough with adjective:
Ex: You are too young to drive.
After it + be + adjective (+ of + noun/pronoun)
Ex: It was so nice of her to say that.
After it + be + noun (with certain nouns)
Ex: It’s such a pleasure to finally know about you.
WE USE ING- VERB
Ex: Cheating is considered to be unethical.
Ex: I’m tired of listening The teacher.
I achieved my goals by working very hard.
In the expressions: it’s no use, it’s (not) worth, can’t help, there’s no point (in), have difficulty (in), in addition to, have trouble, have a hard/difficult time, etc.
Ex: There’s no point arguing. Let’s just agree on something.
After spend/waste + time/money/etc.
Ex: I would like to spend more time talking with my friends.
After hear, listen, notice, see, watch to express an incomplete action, or action in progress:
I saw them playing in the park. (The action was in progress. I didn’t see it finish)
BUT hear, listen, notice, see + infinitive WITHOUT to to express a short or complete action:
I saw them play (I saw the action from start to end. It was probably a short kiss.)
After like, love, hate, prefer to express general preference.
I like studying. (stuying in general)
I prefer driving to work. (in general)
After certain verbs, such as admit, avoid, deny, enjoy, fancy, feel like, finish, keep (on), imagine, involve, mind, miss, practise, recommend, regret, spend, suggest:
She suggested visiting Madrid.
We avoided driving when it rains.
WE USE BARE INFINITIE (WITHOUT TO)
After modal verbs (can, could, must, might, should, will would)
He should be here by now.
I might need you to study for the test.
After make/let+ object
He made them wait outside for more than an hour.
They didn’t let us talk in there.
BUT in the passive voice we say be made + to-infinitive
They were made to play music in front of the people.
After had better/would rather/would sooner
You’d better not say anything about what you’ve just heard.
I’d rather go out next week.
After hear, listen, notice, see to express a short or complete action:
I saw them kiss (I saw the action from start to end. It was probably a short kiss.)
I heard someone shout your name. (I heard all of it)
VERBS THAT TAKE GERUND OR INFINITIVE WITH A CHANGE OF MEANING
Forget to do something: Used to talk about things that we need to do, and we forget to do them.
I think forgot to lock the door when we left.
Don’t forget to call me when you finish.
Forget doing something: It’s normally used in negative sentences. Used to talk about memories, normally about things that we did in the past and that we will not forget.
I’ll never forget walking on that amazing beach for the first time.
Remember to do something: You remember first and then you do something. Used to talk about things we need to do.
He didn’t remember to turn off the heating after class.
Please, will you remember to close the windows if you leave?
Remember doing something: Used to talk about memories. We remember things from the past.
I remember eating on this same chair the day I graduated.
I remember mentioning the issue to Elisabeth last week.
Try to do something: When we try to do something, we make an effort to achieve something that we maybe we will or will not accomplish.
Could you please try to be a bit less loud?
I’ll try to convince him, but I’m not sure that’s going to change.
Try doing something: Used when we want to achieve something and try something as an experiment to see if it help us achieve what we want. We try a method (one of the many we could try) in order to achieve something.
A: “I need to sleep but I can’t.” B: “Why don’t you try listening to some relaxing music?”
I can’t contact Jane. I’ve tried calling her home number and also on her mobile, but nothing.
Stop to do something: Used when we stop doing an activity so as to start doing a different one.
We had been driving for hours, so we had to stop to eat something and go to the toilet.
Stop doing something: It means to finish doing something that we are doing.
Could you stop biting your nails?
I need to stop smoking once and for ever.
Need to do something: It’s necessary to do something
I need to see you immediately.
Something needs doing: It’s like a passive use. It means that something needs to be done.
Your car needs cleaning. (Your car needs to be cleaned.)