PAST SIMPLE: We use past simple to talk about actions that start and finished in the past
Ex: He walked for 2 hours
PAST CONTINUOUS: We use past continuous to talk about something than start then continue but finish in the past
Ex: He was walking for 2 hours
PAST PERFECT SIMPLE: We use past perfect simple to talk about an earlier past that comes before the past simple
Ex: He had realized that he walked for 2 hours
DURATON FORM EARLIER IN THE PAST (STATIVE VERBS) : We use the past perfect simple with stative verbs to talk about states or situations that had started earlier in the past.
Ex: He told me he had always hated running
PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS: We use past perfect continuous when we want to talk about long continuous verbs that started earlier in the past
Ex: he had been walking for 2 hours
USED TO + INFINITIVE: We use used to +infinitive when we want to talk about actions that we repeated in the past
Ex: He did not used to walk before the doctor told him to
SITUATIONS OR STATES THAT ARE NOT LONGER TRUE: We use this when we talk about a situation or state that it was true in the past but is no longer true now
Ex: When I was a child, my hair used to be blonde
BE USED TO
Is when you are accustomed doing something maybe it’s something new, difficult or strange, but you have been doing it for a long time and now you don t find it strange difficult or new. It’s normally used in simple tenses.
Ex: at first it was hard to him to walk 2 hours straight but now he is used to
GET USED TO
Is the process of you becoming accustomed to something.
Ex: he is getting through from the flu
USED TO + INF, BE/GET USED + ING
The past verb used to is always followed by infinitive. The to is part form de infinitive
Ex: I used to live with my parents
After be used to or get used to we use a ing or a noun verb in this the to is part of the preposition no of the infinitive.
Ex: I will get used to playing tennis all the weekends
POSITION OF ADVERBS AND ADVERBS PHRASES
We put adverbs and adverbs phrases in three postitions inicial position,mis position and final position
Initial position: at the beginning of a phrase
Ex: sometimes I feel weird
Yesterday I went to the cinema
Final postiton: at the end of a word
He came very early
She walks slow
In his position is where the adverbs are usually placed. Is before the main verb, we usuaññy place it after the be verb and after the auxiliary verb.
Ex: He always answer the phone
ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY
We usually place adverbs of frequency in the mid position but in some exceptions we place it in the initial position.
They always play football
Sometimes he can be very mean
We use indirect questions when we want to be formal we can use the expesions: could you tell me, I wonder if, would you mind.
What music do you like? (Direct question)
Would you mind telling me what music do you like? (Indirect question)
In indirect questions the order is subject + verb
We use to infinitive:
To express purpose:
I’ll call her to tell her happy birthday.
After too/enough with adjective:
You are too young to drink alcohol.
He isn’t old enough to be here.
After certain adjectives (happy, glad, sorry, delighted, anxious, etc.):
I’m glad to know you are well.
I’m so sorry to hear those news.
After it + be + adjective (+ of + noun/pronoun)
It’s fantastic to be with you.
It was so nice of her to say that.
After it + be + noun (with certain nouns)
It’s such a pleasure to finally know about you.
It would be a crime/pity/mistake to waste all that paper.
After certain nouns (advice, decision, dream, opportunity, etc.)
I had the opportunity to meet Justin Bieber last year.
Nobody liked the decision to increase taxes.
After like, love, hate, prefer to express particular preference.
I like to read my book while I’m having coffee.
You don’t need to drive me. I prefer to take the subway.
After would like, would love, would hate, would prefer
I’d love to see a movie at my grandma’s house.
I’d prefer to arrive earlier than yesterday.
In certain expressions (to be honest, to tell you the truth, to begin with, etc.)
To be honest, I didn’t want to go to his birthday.
We hated the trip. To begin with, the hotel was dirty and the food awful.
After certain verbs such as afford, agree, appear, arrange, be able, choose, decide, deserve, expect, happen, help, hesitate, hope, learn, make, manage, offer, plan, pretend, promise, refuse, seem, teach, tend, threatened, want, would like.
We wanted to play with him 1 more hour.
They agreed to grant him an extension.
WE USE ING- VERB
As a noun (subject):
Cheating is considered to be unethical.
I’m tired of listening The teacher.
I achieved my goals by working very hard.
In the expressions: it’s no use, it’s (not) worth, can’t help, there’s no point (in), have difficulty (in), in addition to, have trouble, have a hard/difficult time, etc.
There’s no point arguing. Let’s just agree on something.
We had a hard time trying to find the car.
After spend/waste + time/money/etc.
I would like to spend more time talking with my friends.
Don’t waste your money buying in that city.
After hear, listen, notice, see, watch to express an incomplete action, or action in progress:
I saw them playing in the park. (The action was in progress. I didn’t see it finish)
BUT hear, listen, notice, see + infinitive WITHOUT to to express a short or complete action:
I saw them play (I saw the action from start to end. It was probably a short kiss.)
After like, love, hate, prefer to express general preference.
I like studying. (stuying in general)
I prefer driving to work. (in general)
After certain verbs, such as admit, avoid, deny, enjoy, fancy, feel like, finish, keep (on), imagine, involve, mind, miss, practise, recommend, regret, spend, suggest:
She suggested visiting Madrid.
We avoided driving when it rains.
WE USE BARE INFINITIE (WITHOUT TO)
After modal verbs (can, could, must, might, should, will would)
He should be here by now.
I might need you to study for the test.
After make/let+ object
He made them wait outside for more than an hour.
They didn’t let us talk in there.
BUT in the passive voice we say be made + to-infinitive
They were made to play music in front of the people.
After had better/would rather/would sooner
You’d better not say anything about what you’ve just heard.
I’d rather go out next week.
After hear, listen, notice, see to express a short or complete action:
I saw them kiss (I saw the action from start to end. It was probably a short kiss.)
I heard someone shout your name. (I heard all of it)
VERBS THAT TAKE GERUND OR INFINITIVE WITH A CHANGE OF MEANING
Forget to do something: Used to talk about things that we need to do, and we forget to do them.
I think forgot to lock the door when we left.
Don’t forget to call me when you finish.
Forget doing something: It’s normally used in negative sentences. Used to talk about memories, normally about things that we did in the past and that we will not forget.
I’ll never forget walking on that amazing beach for the first time.
Remember to do something: You remember first and then you do something. Used to talk about things we need to do.
He didn’t remember to turn off the heating after class.
Please, will you remember to close the windows if you leave?
Remember doing something: Used to talk about memories. We remember things from the past.
I remember eating on this same chair the day I graduated.
I remember mentioning the issue to Elisabeth last week.
Try to do something: When we try to do something, we make an effort to achieve something that we maybe we will or will not accomplish.
Could you please try to be a bit less loud?
I’ll try to convince him, but I’m not sure that’s going to change.
Try doing something: Used when we want to achieve something and try something as an experiment to see if it help us achieve what we want. We try a method (one of the many we could try) in order to achieve something.
A: “I need to sleep but I can’t.” B: “Why don’t you try listening to some relaxing music?”
I can’t contact Jane. I’ve tried calling her home number and also on her mobile, but nothing.
Stop to do something: Used when we stop doing an activity so as to start doing a different one.
We had been driving for hours, so we had to stop to eat something and go to the toilet.
Stop doing something: It means to finish doing something that we are doing.
Could you stop biting your nails?
I need to stop smoking once and for ever.
Need to do something: It’s necessary to do something
I need to see you immediately.
Something needs doing: It’s like a passive use. It means that something needs to be done.
Your car needs cleaning. (=Your car needs to be cleaned.)