We use the past simple to talk about past events in chronological order and habits or past states.
-I went to the store and bought some fruit.
We use the past continuous to talk about things that were in progress in the past.
-Yesterday I was singing, when…
Past Perfect Simple:
We use the past perfect simple to talk about an earlier past: events which happened before the main event and to say how much or how many we had done of something earlier in the past.
-When he called her, she had already left.
Past perfect continuous:
We use the past perfect continuous to talk about repeated actions from earlier in the past.
- She had been eating chips every day for over a year.
Used to + infinitive
We can use used to + infinitive to talk about things that we did repeatedly in the past and to talk about situations or states (stative verbs) which were true in the past, but they are no longer true.
- When I was 11, I used to go on holidays every summer.
Used to, didn’t use to, did you use to
The negative of used to + infinitive is didn’t use to,and we form questions with did you use to…
Be used to
We use be used to to talk about something that is new, strange or difficult, but you have done it for some time and now you don’t find it new, strange or difficult any more.
-When I started high school, it was hard to get up early, but now I am used to it.
Get used to:
We use get used to to talk about something that you are becoming accustomed.
-I’m getting used to living in Argentina.
Position of adverbs and adverb phrases:
We can put adverbs and adverb phrases at the front, in the middle or at the end of a clause.
Types of adverbs and their position
Adverbs of frequency
Mid position: usually, hardly ever, sometimes, normally.
Initial position: sometimes, usually, normally.
We use indirect questions: Can you tell me..? Do you know...? Would you tell me..?, to ask a question in a politely way. The order is subject + verb.
-Could you tell me what time it is? (IQ)
-What time is it? (DQ)
For yes-no questions we can use if/whether.
- Do you know if he is coming.
GERUNDS/ TO INFINITIVE
We use to-infinitive:
-To express purpose.
-After some adjectives (happy, glad, sorry, delighted, anxious, etc.)
-After some nouns (advice, decision, dream, opportunity, etc.)
-After like, love, hate, prefer and would like, would love, would hate, would prefer.
-After some expressions
We use gerunds:
-As a noun.
-In some expressions: not, in, etc.
-After spend/waste + time/money/etc.
-After hear, listen, notice, see, watch to express an incomplete action, or action in progress. But hear, listen, notice, see + inf without TO to express a short or complete action.
-After like, love, hate, prefer to express general preference.
After certain verbs, such as admit, avoid, deny, enjoy, fancy, feel like, finish, keep (on), imagine, involve, mind, miss, practise, recommend, regret, spend, suggest.
We use bare infinitive ( without to):
-After modal verbs (can, could, must, ought, might, may, would)
-After make/let + object. But in the passive voice we say be made + to-inf.
-After had better/would rather/would sooner.
-After hear, listen, notice, see to express a short or complete action.
Verbs the take gerund or infinitive Edith a change of meaning:
-Forget to do something: things that you need to do, but forget about it.
-Forget doing something: memories, thing that you did in the past and you won’t forget.
-Remember to doing something: you remember first and then you do it.
-Remember doing something: used to talk about memories.
-Try to do something: when we try to do something.
-Try doing something: when you try a method in order to achieve something.
Stop to do something: when we stop doing an activity so as to start doing a different one.
Stop doing something: It means to finish doing something that we are doing.
-Need to do something: when you need to do something.
- Something needs doing: that something needs to be done.(passive use)