Santino Yoo y Lautaro La Falce

Past Tenses

Past Simple:

  • We use it to talk about past events in chronological order.

Example: Hecalled me andtold me to go, but when Iarrived he wasn’t there.

  • We use it to talk about habits in the past or past states.

Example: He always played football every Saturday.

Past Continuous:

  • We use the past continuous theset the scene in a story.

Example: The sun was shinning and lots of tourists were lying on the beach.

  • For actions in progress in the past that are interrupted by shorter action in the past simple.

Example: I was watching TV when mum arrived.

Past Perfect Simple:

  • We use it to talk about events that happened before another action in the past.

Earlier single events:

  • We use the past perfect simple to talk about earlier events and experiences, or single

actions completed earlier in the past.

Example: When he arrived home, his family had already eaten.

  • We use only the past perfect simple to talk about HOW MUCH OR HOW MANY we had done before a situation in the past.

Example: How many hours had he played that game?

Duration from earlier in the past (stative verbs)

  • We use the past perfect simple with stative verbs to talk about states or situations that hadstarted earlier in the past. We often usehow long,for or since, always,etc.

Example: He told us he had always hated sleeping.

Present perfect continuous:

Duration from earlier in the past (dynamic verbs)

  • We use the past perfect continuous with dynamic verbs to talk about longer continuousactions that started earlier in the past.

Example: I had been working in this project when I fell asleep.

Repeated actions from earlier in the past (dynamic verbs)

  • To talk about repeated actions from earlier in the past.

Example: He had been playing that game every day for over a month.

 

 

Used to + infinitive:

Repeated actions in the past

  • To talk about habits in the past

Example: When I was younger I used to play tennis.

Situations or states that are no longer true

  • We use to talk about situations or states (stative verbs) that were true in the past but now it is not.

Example: I used to be thin when I was a kid.

Used to, didn’t use to, did you use to

  • -Used to negative= didn’t use to.

-Used to question= did you use to.

-Use to present:X (it doesn’t exist)

When we talk about habits in the past we use present simple.

Example: I always play Fortnite after school.

Be used to

  • Being accustomed to something:

Example: At first I couldn’t drive in the right side, but now I’m used to it.

Get used to

  • Getting accustomed to something:

Example: It might be difficult at first, but you’ll get used to driving on the left.

Used to + infinitive,be/get used to + ing

  • The past verbused to is always followed by infinitive.

Example: I used to watch football more frequently when I was younger

  • Afterbe used to, orget used to, we use a noun or a –ing verb.

Example: I’m not used to this cold and rainy weather.

Position of adverbs and adverb phrases

 

Initial position, mid-position and final position

We can put adverbs and adverb phrases in three positions: initial position, mid position, or

final position.

Initial position: at the beginning of the sentence.

 Sometimes I feel like ill

 Yesterday I went to the museum.

Final position: at the end of the sentence.

 She arrived very late.

 We have to move quickly.

Mid position

This is the position where most adverbs are placed. It is before the main verb:

 I often call him to know how he is.

 They don’t always answer the phone.

After the verb “to be” (when it is the main verb)

 They are often late.

After the auxiliary verb or the first auxiliary verb (when there are 2 or more auxiliary verbs)

 You must never do that again.

 

Types of adverbs and their position

 

Adverbs of frequency (how often?)

Adverbs of frequency usually go in mid position.

(sometimes,usually and normally) can also go in initial position.

Mid position

FOR EXAMPLE

 I usually work on Saturdays, but only in the mornings

 She’s hardly ever late

 

Initial position: sometimes, usually, normally

FOR EXAMPLE

 Sometimes he can be very stubborn.

 

 

Indirect questions

We normally use indirect questions, when we want to be more polite. We begin the

question with expressions such as Can you tell me …? Could you tell me …? Do you

know …? Would you mind telling me …?

 What time is it? (direct question)

 Could you tell me what time it is? (indirect question)

In indirect questions the order is subject + verb.

 Do you know whereI can find a bank? (NOT …where can I find)

 Can you tell me what time the shops close?(NOT …what time do the shops close)

There are other expressions that follow the same rule:

 I don’t know what he is doing here.

 I wonder when he will find the truth.

 I’m not sure when I can come.

 I’d like to know where you left the documents.

Foryes-no questions (when there is NO question word), we can use bothif orwhether:

 Do you know if/whether he’ll be here soon?

 

Gerunds / To infinitive

We use to-infinitive

 

 _To express purpose

FOR EXAMPLE

I’ll call her to tell her what happened.

 

 _Aftertoon /enough with adjective:

FOR EXAMPLE

You are too young to be here.

 He isn’t old enough to be here.

 

 _After certain adjectives (happy, glad, sorry, delighted, anxious, etc.):

FOR EXAMPLE

I’m glad to know you passed the test.

 I’m so sorry to hear that.

 

 _After it + be +adjective (+of + noun/pronoun)

FOR EXAMPLE

 It’s fantastic to be here.

 It was so nice of her to say that.

 

 _After it +be + noun (with certain nouns)

FOR EXAMPLE

It’s such a pleasure to finallymeet you.

It would be a crime/pity/mistake to waste all that paper.

 

_After certain nouns (advice, decision, dream, opportunity, etc.)

FOR EXAMPLE

 I had the opportunity to meet him last year.

 Nobody liked the decision to increase taxes.

 

 _After like, love, hate, prefer to express particular preference.

FOR EXAMPLE

 I like to read my newspaper while I’m having tea.

 You don’t need to drive me. I prefer to takethe bus.

 

 _After would like, would love, would hate, would prefer

FOR EXAMPLE

 I’d love to see the views from the top.

 I’d prefer to arrive a bit earlier than usual.

 

 _In certain expressions (to be honest, to tell you the truth, to begin with,etc.)

FOR EXAMPLE

 To be honest, I didn’t want to go to the conference.

 We hated the trip.To begin with, the hotel was dirty and the food awful.

 

 _After certain verbs such asafford, agree, appear, arrange, be able, choose, decide,

deserve, expect, happen, help, hesitate, hope, learn, make, manage, offer, plan,

pretend, promise, refuse, seem, teach, tend, threatened, want, would like.

FOR EXAMPLE

 We wanted to stay a bit longer.

 They agreed to grant him an extension.

 

We use –ing verb

 _As a noun (subject):

FOR EXAMPLE

 Cheating is considered to be unethical

 

 After prepositions:

FOR EXAMPLE

 I’m tired of listening to you.

 

_ In the expressions: it’s no use, it’s (not) worth, can’t help, there’s no point (in), have

difficulty (in), in addition to, have trouble, have a hard/difficult time, etc.

FOR EXAMPLE

 There’s no point arguing. Let’s just agree on something.

  We had a hard time finding our way back

 

After spend/waste + time/money/etc

FOR EXAMPLE

 I would like to spend more time playing with my kids.

 Don’t waste your money buying in that store

 

 After hear, listen, notice, see, watch to express an incomplete action, or action in

progress:

 I saw them kissing in the park. (The action was in progress. I didn’t see it finish)

 

_BUT hear, listen, notice, see + infinitive WITHOUT TO to express a short or complete

action:

FOR EXAMPLE

 I saw themkiss (I saw the action from start to end. It was probably a short kiss.)

 

 _After like, love, hate, prefer to express general preference.

FOR EXAMPLE

 I love singing. (singing general)

 I prefer walking to school. (in general)

 

 After certain verbs like: admit, avoid, deny, enjoy, fancy, feel like, finish, keep

(on), imagine, involve, mind, miss, practise, recommend, regret, spend, suggest:

FOR EXAMPLE

 She suggested visiting the museum before going to the cinema

 We avoided driving at nights.

 

We use bare infinitive (without to)

 _After modal verbs (can, could, must, might, should, will would)

FOR EXAMPLE

 He should be home by now.

 I might need you tomorrow.

 

_ After make/let+ object

FOR EXAMPLE

 _He made them wait outside for more than an hour.

 They didn’tlet us take photographs.

 

_After had better/would rather/would sooner

 You’d better not say anything about what you’ve just seen.

 I’d rather go to the cinema another day.

 

_After hear, listen, notice, see to express a short or complete action

FOR EXAMPLE

 I saw them kiss (I saw the action from start to end. It was probably a short action)

 I heard someone shout your name. (I heard all of it)

 

 

 

Fecha: 10/6/2018 | Creado por: Lautaro Manuel
Categoria: BHKP