Example: Hecalled me andtold me to go, but when Iarrived he wasn’t there.
Example: He always played football every Saturday.
Example: The sun was shinning and lots of tourists were lying on the beach.
Example: I was watching TV when mum arrived.
Earlier single events:
actions completed earlier in the past.
Example: When he arrived home, his family had already eaten.
Example: How many hours had he played that game?
Duration from earlier in the past (stative verbs)
Example: He told us he had always hated sleeping.
Duration from earlier in the past (dynamic verbs)
Example: I had been working in this project when I fell asleep.
Repeated actions from earlier in the past (dynamic verbs)
Example: He had been playing that game every day for over a month.
Repeated actions in the past
Example: When I was younger I used to play tennis.
Situations or states that are no longer true
Example: I used to be thin when I was a kid.
Used to, didn’t use to, did you use to
-Used to question= did you use to.
-Use to present:X (it doesn’t exist)
When we talk about habits in the past we use present simple.
Example: I always play Fortnite after school.
Example: At first I couldn’t drive in the right side, but now I’m used to it.
Example: It might be difficult at first, but you’ll get used to driving on the left.
Example: I used to watch football more frequently when I was younger
Example: I’m not used to this cold and rainy weather.
Position of adverbs and adverb phrases
Initial position, mid-position and final position
We can put adverbs and adverb phrases in three positions: initial position, mid position, or
Initial position: at the beginning of the sentence.
Sometimes I feel like ill
Yesterday I went to the museum.
Final position: at the end of the sentence.
She arrived very late.
We have to move quickly.
This is the position where most adverbs are placed. It is before the main verb:
I often call him to know how he is.
They don’t always answer the phone.
After the verb “to be” (when it is the main verb)
They are often late.
After the auxiliary verb or the first auxiliary verb (when there are 2 or more auxiliary verbs)
You must never do that again.
Types of adverbs and their position
Adverbs of frequency (how often?)
Adverbs of frequency usually go in mid position.
(sometimes,usually and normally) can also go in initial position.
I usually work on Saturdays, but only in the mornings
She’s hardly ever late
Initial position: sometimes, usually, normally
Sometimes he can be very stubborn.
We normally use indirect questions, when we want to be more polite. We begin the
question with expressions such as Can you tell me …? Could you tell me …? Do you
know …? Would you mind telling me …?
What time is it? (direct question)
Could you tell me what time it is? (indirect question)
In indirect questions the order is subject + verb.
Do you know whereI can find a bank? (NOT …where can I find)
Can you tell me what time the shops close?(NOT …what time do the shops close)
There are other expressions that follow the same rule:
I don’t know what he is doing here.
I wonder when he will find the truth.
I’m not sure when I can come.
I’d like to know where you left the documents.
Foryes-no questions (when there is NO question word), we can use bothif orwhether:
Do you know if/whether he’ll be here soon?
Gerunds / To infinitive
We use to-infinitive
_To express purpose
I’ll call her to tell her what happened.
_Aftertoon /enough with adjective:
You are too young to be here.
He isn’t old enough to be here.
_After certain adjectives (happy, glad, sorry, delighted, anxious, etc.):
I’m glad to know you passed the test.
I’m so sorry to hear that.
_After it + be +adjective (+of + noun/pronoun)
It’s fantastic to be here.
It was so nice of her to say that.
_After it +be + noun (with certain nouns)
It’s such a pleasure to finallymeet you.
It would be a crime/pity/mistake to waste all that paper.
_After certain nouns (advice, decision, dream, opportunity, etc.)
I had the opportunity to meet him last year.
Nobody liked the decision to increase taxes.
_After like, love, hate, prefer to express particular preference.
I like to read my newspaper while I’m having tea.
You don’t need to drive me. I prefer to takethe bus.
_After would like, would love, would hate, would prefer
I’d love to see the views from the top.
I’d prefer to arrive a bit earlier than usual.
_In certain expressions (to be honest, to tell you the truth, to begin with,etc.)
To be honest, I didn’t want to go to the conference.
We hated the trip.To begin with, the hotel was dirty and the food awful.
_After certain verbs such asafford, agree, appear, arrange, be able, choose, decide,
deserve, expect, happen, help, hesitate, hope, learn, make, manage, offer, plan,
pretend, promise, refuse, seem, teach, tend, threatened, want, would like.
We wanted to stay a bit longer.
They agreed to grant him an extension.
We use –ing verb
_As a noun (subject):
Cheating is considered to be unethical
I’m tired of listening to you.
_ In the expressions: it’s no use, it’s (not) worth, can’t help, there’s no point (in), have
difficulty (in), in addition to, have trouble, have a hard/difficult time, etc.
There’s no point arguing. Let’s just agree on something.
We had a hard time finding our way back
After spend/waste + time/money/etc
I would like to spend more time playing with my kids.
Don’t waste your money buying in that store
After hear, listen, notice, see, watch to express an incomplete action, or action in
I saw them kissing in the park. (The action was in progress. I didn’t see it finish)
_BUT hear, listen, notice, see + infinitive WITHOUT TO to express a short or complete
I saw themkiss (I saw the action from start to end. It was probably a short kiss.)
_After like, love, hate, prefer to express general preference.
I love singing. (singing general)
I prefer walking to school. (in general)
After certain verbs like: admit, avoid, deny, enjoy, fancy, feel like, finish, keep
(on), imagine, involve, mind, miss, practise, recommend, regret, spend, suggest:
She suggested visiting the museum before going to the cinema
We avoided driving at nights.
We use bare infinitive (without to)
_After modal verbs (can, could, must, might, should, will would)
He should be home by now.
I might need you tomorrow.
_ After make/let+ object
_He made them wait outside for more than an hour.
They didn’tlet us take photographs.
_After had better/would rather/would sooner
You’d better not say anything about what you’ve just seen.
I’d rather go to the cinema another day.
_After hear, listen, notice, see to express a short or complete action
I saw them kiss (I saw the action from start to end. It was probably a short action)
I heard someone shout your name. (I heard all of it)