Narrative tenses: Past tenses
Past simple: we use it to talk about past events in chronological order.
Past continuous: we use it to talk about action in progress or longer actions interrupted by shorter actions
Past perfect: Actions that have a consequence in the present
Simple: we use it to talk about actions that happened before another event in the past.
Continuous: we use it to talk about longer continuous actions that started before another event in the past
Used to + infinitive: We use it to talk about things we did many times and repetitively.
Situations or states that are not longer true
We use it to talk about situations or states that were true in the past, but now they aren´t true.
Be Used to: we use it to talk about things you are accustomed to it, and it is natural for you. Maybe it is something new.
After be used to we use a noun or ing.
Get Used to: we use it to talk about the process that you become accustomed to something.
After get used to we use a noun or ing.
Would: We use it only to talk about action verbs.
Position of adverbs and adverb phrases
There are three positions: inicial, mid and final positions
INICIAL position: Sometimes....
MID position: before the main verb
Subjet + often + main verb...
FiNAL position: ...very late
The order is subjet + verb
For yes or no questions we can use if or wether.
Gerunds/ To infinitive
We use to infinitive:
. to express purpose
. after too/enough with adjective
. after certain adjetives (happy, glad, sorry, delighted, anxious, etc.)
. after it + be + adjective
. After it +be + noun (with certain nouns)
. After certain nouns (advice, decision, dream, opportunity, etc.)
. After like, love, hate, prefer to express particular preference
. After would like, would love, would hate, would prefer
.In certain expressions (to be honest, to tell you the truth, to begin with, etc.)
. After certain verbs: afford, agree, appear, arrange, be able, choose, decide,
deserve, expect, happen, help, hesitate, hope, learn, make, manage, offer, plan,
pretend, promise, refuse, seem, teach, tend, threatened, want, would like.
We use ing verb
. As a noun (subject)
. After prepositions
. In the expressions: it’s no use, it’s (not) worth, can’t help, there’s no point (in), have difficulty (in), in addition to, have trouble, have a hard/difficult time, etc.
. After spend/waste + time/money/etc.
. After hear, listen, notice, see, watch to express an incomplete action, or action in progress:
. After like, love, hate, prefer to express general preference.
. After certain verbs like: admit, avoid, deny, enjoy, fancy, feel like, finish, keep
(on), imagine, involve, mind, miss, practise, recommend, regret, spend, suggest:
We use infinitive (without to)
. After modal verbs (can, could, must, might, should, will would)
. After make/let+ object
. After had better/would rather/would sooner
. After hear, listen, notice, see to express a short or complete action
Verbs that take gerund or infinitive with change of meaning
. Forgot to do something: Used to talk about things that we need to do, and we forget to do them.
. Forget doing something: It is. Normally used in negative sentences. Used to talk about memories, normally about things that we did in the past and that we will not forget
.Remember to do something: You remember first and then you do something. Used to talk about things we need to do.
Remember doing something: Used to tal about memories. We remember things from the past.
.Try to do something: When we try to do something, we make an effort to achieve something that we maybe we will or will not accomplish.
.Try doing something: Used when we want to achieve something and try something as an experiment to see if it help us achieve what we want. We try a method (one of many we could try) in order to achieve something.
. Stop to do something: Used when we stop doing an activity so as to start doing a different one.
.Stop to do something: It means to finish doing something that we are doing.
.Need to do something: It is necessary to do something.
.Something needs doing: It is a passive use. It means that something needs to be done.