for the main events of a story.
set the scene in a story. Ex: was walking, listening.
actions in progress in the past or longer actions. Ex: Was Crying, Were talking.
Past perfect simple
events which happened before the main event.
Earlier single events
talk about earlier events and experiences. Ex: When she opened the door, he had already left.
We use the past perfect simple to say how much or how many we had done of something earlier in the past. Ex: We had driven 500 miles and we needed some rest.
Duration from earlier in the past
states or situations that had started earlier in the past. often use how long, for or since, always,etc.
Ex: The day Anne died, they had been married for 48 years.
Past perfect continuous
Duration from earlier in the past : talk about longer continuous actions that started earlier in the past than the main events of the story.
Ex: I was very angry. I had been waiting for him in the cold.
Repeated actions from earlier in the past
talk about repeated actions from earlier in the past.
I couldn’t believe it. She had been writing a letter every day for over a year.
Used to + infinitive
Repeated actions in the past
we did repeatedly in the past.
Ex: When I was a child, I used to go skiing every winter.
Situations or states that are no longer true
were true in the past, but they are no longer true.
I used to climb on trees when I was a child
Used to, didn’t use to, did you use to
The negative of used to +infinitive is didn’t use to.
we form questions with did you use to.
There is no present form of used to. When we want to talk about present habits
or repeated actions, we use the present simple with usually,normally, often, etc.
We usually eat out on Saturday. (not use to eat out, since there is no present form)
Be used to
you are accustomed to it. It’s normally used in simple tenses.
When I started working, it was hard to get up at 6 a.m., but now I’m used to it.
Get used to
you become accustomed to something.
Ex: I’ve just started my new job and I’m still getting used to getting up so early.
Used to + infinitive, be/get used to + ing
The past verb used to is always followed by infinitive. The word to is part of the infinitive.
I used to play basketball when I was in school.
Position of adverbs and adverb phrases
Initial position, mid-position and final position
We can put adverbs and adverb phrases in three positions: initial position, mid position, or
Types of adverbs and their position
Adverbs of frequency
Adverbs of frequency usually go in mid position, although a few of them
can also go in initial position.
We begin the question with expressions such as Can you tell me …? Could you tell me …? Do you know …? Would you mind telling me … ?
GERUNDS/ TO INFINITIVE
⇒ To express purpose:
⇒ After too/enough with adjective:
⇒ After certain adjectives
⇒ After it + be +adjective
⇒ After it +be + noun ⇒ After certain nouns
⇒ Afterlike, love, hate, prefer to express particular preference.
⇒ Afterwould like, would love, would hate, would prefer
⇒ In certain expressions like to be honest,to begin with,etc.
We use –ing verb
⇒ As a noun (subject):
⇒ After prepositions:
⇒ In the expressions: it’s no use, it’s (not) worth, can’t help, there’s no point (in), have difficulty (in), in addition to, have trouble, have a hard/difficult time, etc.
⇒ After spend/waste + time/money/etc.
⇒ After hear, listen, notice, see, watch to express an incomplete action, or action in progress:
⇒ After like, love, hate, prefer to express general preference.
⇒ After certain verbs, such as admit, avoid,etc.
We use bare infinitive (without to)
⇒ After modal verbs (can, could, must, might, should, will would)
⇒ Aftermake/let+ object
⇒After had better/would rather/would sooner
⇒Afterhear, listen, notice, see to express a short or complete action:
Verbs that take gerund or infinitive with a change of meaning
⇒Forget to do something
⇒Remember to do something
⇒Try to do something
⇒Stop to do something
⇒Need to do something