Past simple is used to talk about:
-Past events in chronological order. EG: He woke up, got dressed and had breakfast.
-Habits and routines or states in the past. EG: I always woke up at 7 a.m. He really liked science and was very keen into it.
Past Continuous is used to talk about:
-To talk about actions that were happening in a story. EG: I was studying when I heard something crash.
-To talk about actions that were in progress in the past. EG: By that time, I was crafting my own rocket.
To talk about actions in progress that are interrupted by a sudden action or that are occurring simultaneously to other actions. EG: I was riding my bike when my brother threw a rock to me. While I was cooking, my brother was playing videogames.
Past Perfect Simple:
Past Perfect Simple is used to talk about:
-Things that happened before the thing that you are talking about in the past. We were at the cinema watching a movie, but I had already seen it.
-The quantity of something that was made earlier in the past than the thing you are talking about. EG: We had bought 12 bottles of cola but we decided to buy some more.
-States or situations that had started earlier in the past. We use it with stative verbs and usually are used with how long, since, for etc… EG: When she asked for divorce, they had been married for 37 years.
Past Perfect Continuous:
Past Perfect Continuous is used to talk about:
-Longer actions that happened before the thing you are talking about. We use it with action verbs. EG: I had been waiting him for hours when he decided to call me.
-Repeated actions that happened earlier in the past. We use it with action verbs. EG: She had been practicing how to sing that part of the song for almost two months, no surprise that she sang so well.
Used To + Infinitive:
The verbs after used to are always in infinitive. Used To + Infinitive is used to talk about:
-Repeated actions in the past. EG: I used to wake up at 7 a.m. to go to school.
-States or situations that aren’t true anymore. EG: I used to live in New York until we moved to London.
It can be used with both action and stative verbs
Would for repeated actions in the past:
The verbs after would are always in infinitive. Would is used to:
-Repeated actions In the past. EG: We would always have dinner at 8 o’clock
You can’t use it with stative verbs, only with action verbs. EG: X I would be blond X
Be Used to:
The verbs after be used to are always gerunds. Be Used to is used to talk about:
-Something you are accustomed to or accustomed to doing. At first, I wasn’t used to waking up at 6 a.m., but now I’m used to it.
Get Used to:
Get Used to is used to talk about:
-Something you become accustomed to or to doing. It involves the process of becoming accustomed. EG: At first, I wasn’t used to waking up at 6 a.m., but I had to get used to it. I got used to waking up at 6 a.m.
Yesterday I went to the cinema
I arrived quickly.
Unless it’s followed by something else and the adverb can’t go after it.
I arrived quickly despite of the traffic.
Before main verb:
I often go out on Sundays.
After verb be:
I am often looking forward to seeing him.
After auxiliary verb:
I have never been to Miami
I must never lose my keys again.
When you want to be more polite to the person you’re talking at, you ask indirect questions.
Could you tell me…
Would you mind telling me…
Do you know what time the bank closes?
For yes/no questions we use if or whether
Could you tell me whether you are coming or not?
To+Infinitive vs Gerund:
⇒ To express purpose:
⇒ After too/enough with adjective:
You are too young to have your own house
Are you brave enough to kill that spider?
⇒ After certain adjectives (happy, glad, sorry, delighted, anxious, etc.):
I’m glad/happy to see you again
⇒ After it + be +adjective (+of + noun/pronoun)
It has been very hard to lift all that weigh
It has been really kind of her to lend me her car
⇒ After it +be + noun (with certain nouns)
It is a pleasure to give you this medal
It is considered a crime to steal someone’s identity
⇒ After certain nouns (advice, decision, dream, opportunity, etc.)
The opportunity to meet Selena Gomez is now yours
The decision to declare war was made by mistake
⇒ After like, love, hate, prefer to express particular preference. When it is a specific situation.
I love to read while I’m having tea.
⇒ After would like, would love, would hate, would prefer. When it is a specific situation
I would love to go to Miami in the summer
⇒ In certain expressions (to be honest, to tell you the truth, to begin with,etc.)
To be honest, I’m not interested in what you are saying
⇒ After certain verbs such as afford, agree, appear, arrange, be able, choose, decide,deserve, expect, happen, help, hesitate, hope, learn, make, manage, offer, plan, pretend, promise, refuse, seem, teach, tend, threatened, want, would like.
He afforded to buy that house after years of saving money
We use Gerund
⇒ As a noun (subject):
Stealing is a crime
⇒ After prepositions:
I achieved my goals by working hard.
⇒ In the expressions: it’s no use, it’s (not) worth, can’t help, there’s no point (in), have difficulty (in), in addition to, have trouble, have a hard/difficult time, etc.
I have difficulty in completing this videogame
⇒ After spend/waste + time/money/etc.
There’s no reason to spend money buying so expensive clothes
⇒ After hear, listen, notice, see, watch to express an incomplete action, or action in progress:
I watched the movie sitting in the floor
I saw them kissing (you didn’t see the whole action)
I heard someone shouting (I heard a par of it)
BUT if you want to talk about a complete action use hear, listen, notice, see + infinitive WITHOUT to:
⇒ After like, love, hate, prefer to express general preference.
I love reading the newspaper
⇒ After certain verbs, such as admit, avoid, deny, enjoy, fancy, feel like, finish, keep (on), imagine, involve, mind, miss, practise, recommend, regret, spend, suggest:
I try to avoid having lots of money with me in the streets
Infinitive without to:
⇒ After modal verbs (can, could, must, might, should, will would)
He should come back home by 9 o’clock
I might need the computer
⇒ After make/let+ subject
He made them clean everything
They didn’t let us go to the park
BUT in the passive voice we say be made +to-infinitive
They were made to clean everithing
⇒After had better/would rather/would sooner
You’d better finish your homework by 7 o’clock
I’d rather buy food tomorrow
⇒After hear, listen, notice, see to express a short or complete action:
I saw themkiss (I saw the complete action)
I heard someone shout your name. (I heard the whole shout)