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Summary

Past Simple: We use it to talk about past events in chronological order or to talk about past habits or states.

I opened the window

 

Past continuous: We use it for actions in progress, P.C, interrupted by another, P.S.

We were talking when the phone rang

 

Past perfect simple: We use it for actions which happened before the main action. You can use here like: always, since, for, how long.

I fell to the floor because I hadn’t tied my shoes – I left my country where I had been there for 4 years

 

Past perfect continuous: we use it for long actions which happened earlier in the past.

He had been driving before he slept

 

Used to: We use it to describe past habits we used to have.

I used to play tennis every Saturday

 

Be used to: We use it when you are accustomed to something in the present.

I am used to waking up at 6 o’clock every day

 

Get used to: We use it when we are trying to adapt to something on the future.

I used to get up at 10 o’clock but I’ve got a job so now I should get used to waking up at 7 o’clock.

 

Infinitive or ing: We use infinitive when there is a USED TO and ing when there are GET USE TO or BE USE TO.

 

Would or used to: We use would only with action verbs and used to can be used with action and stative verbs

Indirect questions: it is used for making the questions politer, we add can you tell me or do you know, and change the order of the question to make it affirmative. If it doesn’t have question word we use if.

 

GERUNDS/ TO INFINITIVE

We use to-infinitive

To express purpose:

● I’ll call her to tell her what happened.

⇒ After too/enough with adjective:

● You are too young to be here.

● He isn’t told enough to be here.

⇒ After certain adjectives (happy, glad, sorry, delighted, anxious, etc.):

● I’m glad to know you passed the test.

● I’m so sorry to hear that.

⇒ After it + be +adjective (+of + noun/pronoun)

● It’s fantastic to be here.

● It was so nice of her to say that.

⇒ After it +be + noun (with certain nouns)

● It’s such a pleasure to finally meet you.

● It would be a crime/pity/mistake to waste all that paper.

⇒ After certain nouns (advice, decision, dream, opportunity, etc.)

● I had the opportunity to meet him last year.

● Nobody liked the decision to increase taxes.

⇒ After like, love, hate, prefer to express particular preference.

● I like to read my newspaper while I’m having tea.

● You don’t need to drive me. I prefer to take the bus.

⇒ After would like, would love, would hate, would prefer

● I’d love to see the views from the top.

● I’d prefer to arrive a bit earlier than usual.

⇒ In certain expressions (to be honest, to tell you the truth, to begin with, etc.)

● To be honest, I didn’t want to go to the conference.

● We hated the trip. To begin with, the hotel was dirty and the food awful.

 

⇒ After certain verbs such as afford, agree, appear, arrange, be able, choose, decide,

deserve, expect, happen, help, hesitate, hope, learn, make, manage, offer, plan,

pretend, promise, refuse, seem, teach, tend, threatened, want, would like.

● We wanted to stay a bit longer.

● They agreed to grant him an extension.

 

We use –ing verb

⇒ As a noun (subject):

● Cheating is considered to be unethical.

⇒ After prepositions:

● I’m tired of listening to you.

I achieved my goals by working hard.

⇒ In the expressions: it’s no use, it’s (not) worth, can’t help, there’s no point (in), have

difficulty (in), in addition to, have trouble, have a hard/difficult time, etc.

● There’s no point arguing. Let’s just agree on something.

● We had a hard time finding our way back.

⇒ After spend/waste + time/money/etc.

● I would like to spend more time playing with my kids.

● Don’t waste your money buying in that store.

⇒ Afterheat, listen, notice, see, watch to express an incomplete action, or action in

progress:

● Isa them kissing in the park. (The action was in progress. I didn’t see it finish)

BUT hear, listen, notice, see + infinitive WITHOUT to express a short or complete

action:

● I saw them kiss (I saw the action from start to end. It was probably a short kiss.)

⇒ After like, love, hate, prefer to express general preference.

● I like reading. (reading in general)

● I prefer driving to work. (in general)

⇒ After certain verbs, such as admit, avoid, deny, enjoy, fancy, feel like, finish, keep

(on), imagine, involve, mind, miss, practice, recommend, regret, spend, suggest:

● She suggested visiting the museum first.

● We avoided driving at nights.

 

We use bare infinitive (without to)

⇒ After modal verbs (can, could, must, might, should, will would)

● He should be home by now.

● I might need you tomorrow.

⇒ After make/let+ object

● He made them wait outside for more than an hour.

● They didn’t let us take photographs.

BUT in the passive voice we say be made +to-infinitive

● They were made to undress in front of the other prisoners.

⇒After had better/would rather/would sooner

● You’d better not say anything about what you’ve just seen.

● I’d rather go out another day.

⇒Afterheat, listen, notice, see to express a short or complete action:

● I saw them kiss (I saw the action from start to end. It was probably a short kiss.)

● I heard someone shout your name. (I heard all of it)

 

Verbs that take gerund or infinitive with a change

of meaning

 

Forget

⇒Forget to do something: Used to talk about things that we need to do, and we forget to

do them.

● I think forgot to lock the door when we left.

● Don’t forget to call me when you finish.

⇒Forget doing something: It’s normally used in negative sentences. Used to talk about

memories, normally about things that we did in the past and that we will not forget.

● I’ll never forget walking on that amazing beach for the first time.

Remember

⇒Remember to do something: You remember first and then you do something. Used to

talk about things we need to do.

● He didn’t remember to turn off the heating after class.

● Please, will you remember to close the windows if you leave?

 

⇒Remember doing something: Used to talk about memories. We remember things from

the past.

● I remember eating on this same chair the day I graduated.

● I remember mentioning the issue to Elisabeth last week.

Try

⇒Try to do something: When we try to do something, we make an effort to achieve

something that we maybe we will or will not accomplish.

● Could you please try to be a bit less rude?

● I’ll try to convince him, but I’m not sure that’s going to change anything.

⇒Try doing something: Used when we want to achieve something and try something as

an experiment to see if it helps us achieve what we want. We try a method (one of the many

we could try) in order to achieve something.

● A: “I need to sleep but I can’t.” B: “Why don’t you try drinking a glass of hot milk?”

● I can’t contact Jane. I’ve tried calling her home number and also on her mobile, but

nothing.

Stop

⇒Stop to do something: Used when we stop doing an activity so as to start doing a

different one.

● We had been driving for hours, so we had to stop to eat something and go to the toilet.

⇒Stop doing something: It means to finish doing something that we are doing.

● Could you stop biting your nails?

● I need to stop smoking once and for ever.

Need

⇒Need to do something: It’s necessary to do something

● Indeed to see you immediately.

⇒Something needs doing: It’s like a passive use. It means that something needs to be

done.

● Your car needs cleaning. (=Your car needs to be cleaned.)

 

 

 

Fecha: 7/6/2018 | Creado por: Ignacio Martin
Categoria: BHKP
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  • Tobias hace aproximadamente un año
    bienn nacho