GRAMMAR SUMMARY UNIT 2
To talk about past events in chronological order and past habits or past states.
To set the scene in a story, for actions in progress in the past or long actions interrupted by short ones in the past.
Past Perfect Simple:
To talk about events, experiences and actions completed earlier in the past. And to say how much or how many we’d done of something earlier in the past.
With stative verbs to talk about states or situations that had started earlier in the past. We often use how long, for or since, always, etc.
Past Perfect Continuous:
With dynamic verbs to talk about longer continuous actions that and repeated actions from earlier in the past.
USED TO + INFINITIVE
To talk about things that we did repeated in the past, situations or states which were true in the past and are no longer true in the present.
BE USED TO
If you’re used to sth or doing sth, you are accustomed to it. Be used to is a state, it’s normally used in simple tenses.
GET USED TO
If you get used to sth or doing sth, you become accustomed to it. Get used to sth is a process.
USED TO + INFINITIVE, BE/GET USED TO +-ing
Used to is always followed by an infinitive. After be used to, or get used to, we use a noun or a –ing verb.
POSITION OF ADVERBS AND ADVERBS PHRASES
We can put adverbs and adverbs phrases in three positions: initial, final, mid position. Most adverbs are placed in the mid position, before the main verb.}
TYPES OF ADVERBS
Adverbs of frequency: usually go in mid position but can also go in initial position.
Use indirect questions when you want to be more polite. Begin the question with expressions like CAN YOU TELL ME…? COULD YOU TELL ME…? DO YOU KNOW…? WOULD YOU MIND TELLING ME…? In indirect questions the order is subject + verb.
For yes/no questions you can use both if or whether.
GERUNDS/ TO INFINITIVE
To express purpose, after certain adjectives/ nouns, after too/enough with adjective, after it + be + adjective/noun, after like, love, hate, prefer to express particular preference, after would like, would love, would hate, would prefer, in certain expressions/ verbs.
As a noun, after prepositions, in certain expressions, after spend/waste + time/money/etc., after hear, listen, notice, see, watch to express an incomplete action or action in progress, after certain verbs, after like, love, hate, prefer to express preferences.
INFINITIVE (without to)
After modal verbs, after make/let + object, after had better/ would rather/ would sooner, after hear, listen, see to express short or complete action.
1) H 2) D 3) F 4) G 5) E 6) A 7) C