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TENSES IN ENGLISH

 

  • PRESENT CONTINUOUS

This tense expresses what is happening NOW, at the moment of speaking.

 

Affirmative

Subject

To be

Verb+ing

We

are

talking

I

am

sleeping

 

Negative

Subject

To be

Verb+ing

She

isn’t

sleeping

They

aren’t

writing

 

Interrogative

To be

Subject

Verb+ing

Am

I

reading?

Are

you

cooking?

 

Special words:

Now – at this moment – Look! – Listen! – still

 

 

  • PRESENT SIMPLE

This tense expresses habitual activities, the things we usually do or don’t do.

 

Affirmative

I – you – we – they

Verb

They

play

 

He – she – it

Verb+s

She

runs

 

Negative

I – you – we – they

Don’t (do not)

Verb

I

don’t

smoke

 

He - she - it

Doesn’t (does not)

Verb

She

doesn’t

speak

 

Interrogative

Do

I – you – we – they

Verb?

Do

you

sing?

 

Does

he – she – it

Verb?

Does

he

work?

 

 

 

 

Special words:

 

 

  1. Between the subject and the verb:

Always – usually – often – seldom – hardly ever – sometimes - never -

       Example:  We always eat meat

 

  1. Every day, week, month, etc
  2. How often…?    Once/ twice/ three times a day/ a month/ a year

 

 

·        PRESENT PERFECT

a)      This tense expresses an action that started in the past but it is still going on in itself or its consequences.

 Example: This year I have gone to the cinema four times

 

b)      It also expresses an action that happened in the past a short time ago and has clear consequences in the present.

 Example: I have lost my key. I can’t open the door.

 

Affirmative

Subject

Have/has

Past participle

We

have

Swum

 

Negative

Subject

Haven’t/hasn’t

Past participle

She

hasn’t

Studied

 

Interrogative

Have/has

Subject

Past participle?

Have

you

copied?

 

Past participle: → Regular: Verb + ed = worked

                           →Irregular:3rd column of irregular verbs = gone, broken, etc.

 

Special words:

 

  1. just – already – ever? – never – always

These words are always between have/has and the past participle

Example: He has already got home

 

  1. lately – recently – so far – yet (- and ?)

 

  1. How long…? ….since…./ ….for….

 

  1. this year, month, week, etc – today – in my life

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • PRESENT  PERFECT CONTINUOUS

This tense is similar to the present perfect simple in meaning but it has some characteristics.

  1. The action has never finished: I have been drinking this glass of milk for 15 minutes.(there is still some milk in my glass)
  2. You can never express the number of times you have performed the action: We have been visited France three timesTHIS IS WRONG.
  3. An action which is repeated  and repeated: My sister has been talking on the phone all day.

 

Affirmative

Subject

Have/has

Been

Verb+ing

We

have

been

studying

 

Negative

Subject

Haven’t/hasn’t

Been

Verb+ing

She

hasn’t

Been

Sleeping

 

Interrogative

Have/has

Subject

Been

Verb+ing?

Have

you

been

working?

 

Special words:  the same that we use for Present Perfect Simple

 

 

  • PAST SIMPLE

This tense expresses something that happened in the past and finished in the past.

 

Affirmative

Subject

Verb in past

We

worked

She

Slept

 

Verb in past:→ Regular: verb + ed= worked

                       → Irregular: 2nd column of irregular verbs: went, broke, etc.

 

Negative

Subject

didn’t

Verb

She

didn’t

Study

 

Interrogative

Did

Subject

Verb?

Did

you

go?

 

Special words:

Yesterday – last night/week/month, etc – a week/two day/ etc ago – in 1998 – when

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

·        PAST CONTINUOUS

This tense expresses an action that was happening during a period of time in the past.

 

                              The phone rang

                                      ↓

Past                 2.00     2.45                 4.00                            present                        future

←------------------■---------------------------■---------------------------│--------------------------------→

                           ↑                                 ↑

   I started watching TV                      I stopped watching TV

                          │_________________ │

                                I was watching TV

 

Example: I was watching TV when the telephone rang

 

Affirmative

Subject

was/were

verb+ing

I

was

swimming

 

 

Negative

Subject

wasn’t/weren’t

verb+ing

We

weren’t

jumping

 

Interrogative

Was/were

Subject

verb+ing?

Were

you

singing?

 

Special words: when – while – as – at 2 o’clock yesterday ( or any other specific point of time)

 

 

·        PAST PERFECT

This tense expresses a past action that happened before another past action.

 

past                           1.00                         3.00                           present                   future

←------------------------■-------------------------■----------------------------│-----------------------→

                                    ↓                                  ↓

                       I bought the tickets          I went into the cinema

 

Example: I went into the cinema after I had bought the tickets

 

Affirmative

Subject

had

past participle

We

had

written

 

Negative

Subject

hadn’t

past participle

I hadn’t

hadn’t

Slept

 

Interrogative

Had

subject

past participle?

Had

she worked?

worked?

 

Special words: when - after -  before – by the time

 

 

·        FUTURE

Future is not a tense in English. It can be expressed in different ways

 

Will:   ☻ Predictions based on ideas or opinions: Next year there will be 2% rate of inflation.

            ☻ Promises: I’ll phone you at 9.00 o’clock.

            ☻ Instant decision: Don’t worry. I’ll help you.

            ☻ Polite requests: Will you open the window, please?

            ☻ Future fact: I’ll be 16 next birthday.

 

“Going to”:  ☻Plans or intentions: Next week I’m going to buy a new car.

                        ☻ Predictions based on evidence: The sky is cloudy. I think it is going to rain.

 

Present Continuous:☻ Arrangements: Tomorrow I’m playing tennis with my boss.

 

Present Simple:  ☻Schedules or timetables that I can’t change: The concert starts at 5.

Fecha: 23/3/2017 | Creado por: Jesica Valeria
Categoria: THEORY
Etiquetas: TEENS 3