Some useful tips.

WORD FORMATION

Using suffixes to change meaning

SUFFIX COMMON USES EXAMPLES
-er  -ee  -or  -ant  -ent  -ist

to change a word describing a thing,

place or action to a noun describing

a person connected with it, or the

name of the job

teacher  Londoner

employer / employee

director   consultant

arttist
-ese  -ian  -an  -ish

to change  the name of a country

to the language/the nationality

adjective

Japanese

Hungarian

Polish
-ian  -ician  -an  -ish

to change the name of a subject

to the person studying/ connected w

ith it

 

historian  

statistician

Mathematician 

economist

-ism  -ician  -ist

we use –ism to create a noun describing

a belief or movement, and –ist to describe

a person who follows the movement

or belief

Impressionism/impressionist

communism/communist

Thatcherism / Thatcherite
-ie  -y

to make a familiar or pet version

of a name

doggie   mummy  Sammy

NOTE

Noun ending in –er have an active meaning and nouns ending in –ee have a passive meaning.

e.g. an interviewer asks questions and the interviewee answers them; a trainer teaches and a trainee learns

Note there are some exceptions, e.g. a processor is an electronic component, not a person.

Some nouns that end in (-i)an and –ese can also be used to describe a person:

Italian    an Italian     Chinese      a Chinese

 

Using suffixes to change a word class

 

CHANGE SUFFIXES EXAMPLES
adjective ⇒   noun -ness   -ity   -ance   -ence

laziness  density 

endurance  difference

noun/verb  ⇒  adjective

-al   -ful   -less  -able

-y  -ous  -ent   -ive

central  spiteful

careless  suitable 

scary  continuous 

persistent elusive

noun/adjective  ⇒  verb -ise/-ize  -(e)n  -(i)ate  -(i)fy

standardise 

harmonise 

heighten 

differentiate 

solidify

verb ⇒   noun

-al –ance  -ence

-ment –tion  -ure

arrival 

ignorance

dependence

argument 

education 

closure

 

Using prefixes to change meaning

PREFIX MEANING EXAMPLES

auto-

bi-

co-

ex-

-inter

In-/im-

mega-

mono-

over-

re-

semi-

sub-

under-

ill-

mis-

SELF

TWO

TOGETHER / JOINT

FORMER / PREVIOUS

AMONG / BETWEEN

INTO /INSIDE

HUGE / A MILLION

ONE ONLY

SUPERIOR   TOO MUCH

AGAIN

HALF

BELOW

INFERIOR  TOO  LITTLE

INADEQUATE

WRONGLY DONE

autobiography  auto-immune autonomous

bilingual  bisect bi-annual

co-directors   co-owners

ex-husband  ex-president

International  inter-state

Insert  income  import

megastar  megabytes

monolingual  monopoly

overlord   overdrive

repay   reorganise

semi-literate   semicircle

sub-zero  substandard

underclass  undervalue

ill-matched ill-informed  ill-equipped

misunderstand misplace misfit

 

 

Fecha: 26/9/2016 | Creado por: Natalia
Categoria: CAE EXAM 2016
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