Let's practise grammar!


Adjectives and Adverbs.

1)Let's look at these charts and analyse them.


Comparison of adjectives

There are three forms of comparison:

- positive 
- comparative
- superlative

clean - cleaner - (the) cleanest

We use -er/-est with the following adjectives:

1) adjectives with one syllable

clean cleaner cleanest
new newer newest
cheap cheaper cheapest

2) adjectives with two syllables and the following endings:

2 - 1) adjectives with two syllables, ending in -y

dirty dirtier dirtiest
easy easier easiest
happy happier happiest
pretty prettier prettiest

2 - 2) adjectives with two syllables, ending in -er

clever cleverer cleverest

2 - 3) adjectives with two syllables, ending in -le

simple simpler simplest

2 - 4) adjectives with two syllables, ending in -ow

narrow narrower narrowest



Spelling of the adjectives using the endings -er/-est

large larger largest leave out the silent -e
big bigger biggest Double the consonant after short vowel
sad sadder saddest
dirty dirtier dirtiest Change -y to -i (consonant before -y)
shy shyer shyest Here -y is not changed to -i.
(although consonant before -y)



difficult - more difficult - (the) most difficult

all adjectives with more than one syllable (except some adjectives with two syllables - see 
2 - 1 to 2 - 4)

good better best  
bad worse worst  
much more most uncountable nouns
many more most countable nouns
little less least  
little smaller smallest  



Some ajdectives have two possible forms of comparison.

common commoner / more common commonest / most common
likely likelier / more likely likeliest / most likely
pleasant pleasanter / more pleasant pleasantest / most pleasant
polite politer / more polite politest / most polite
simple simpler / more simple simplest / most simple
stupid stupider / more stupid stupidest / most stupid
subtle subtler / more subtle subtlest
sure surer / more sure surest / most sure



Difference in meaning with adjectives:

far farther farthest distance
further furthest distance or
late later latest  
latter x  
x last  
old older oldest people and things
elder eldest people (family)
near nearer nearest distance
x next order


As … as


We use as + adjective/adverb + as to make comparisons when the things we are comparing are equal in some way:

The world’s biggest bull is as big as a small elephant.

The weather this summer is as bad as last year. It hasn’t stopped raining for weeks.

You have to unwrap it as carefully as you can. It’s quite fragile.


Not as … as

We use not as … as to make comparisons between things which aren’t equal:

It’s not as heavy as I thought it would be, actually.

Rory hasn’t grown as tall as Tommy yet.

She’s not singing as loudly as she can.

They didn’t play as well as they usually do.

We can modify not as … as by using not quite as or not nearly as:

The second race was not quite as easy as the first one. (The second race was easy but the first one was easier.)

These new shoes are not nearly as comfortable as my old ones. (My old shoes are a lot more comfortable than these new shoes.)

We can also use not so … as. Not so … as is less common than not as … as:

The cycling was good but not so hard as the cross country skiing we did.

As … as + possibility

We often use expressions of possibility or ability after as … as:

Can you come as soon as possible?

Go to as many places as you can.

We got here as fast as we could.

As much asas many as

When we want to make comparisons referring to quantity, we use as much as with uncountable nouns and as many as with plural nouns:

Greg makes as much money as Mick but not as much as Neil.

They try to give them as much freedom as they can.

There weren’t as many people there as I expected.

We can use as much as and as many as before a number to refer to a large number of something:

Scientists have discovered a planet which weighs as much as 2,500 times the weight of Earth.

There were as many as 50 people crowded into the tiny room.

Comparison of adverbs.

There are three forms:

- positive 
- comparative
- superlative

hard - harder - (the) hardest

We use -er/-est with the following adverbs:

1) all adverbs with one syllable

fast faster fastest
high higher highest

2) The adverb: early

carefully - more carefully - (the) most carefully

adverbs ending on -ly (not: early)

well better best
badly worse worst
much more most
little less least
late later last
far farther


In informal English some adverbs are used without -ly (e.g. cheap, loud, quick). There are two forms of comparison possible, depending on the form af the adverb:
cheaply - more cheaply - most cheaply
cheap - cheaper - cheapest



Additional points

  1. We can modify comparatives with much, a lot, far, a little, a bit, slightly.
    • Bob is much richer than I am.
    • My mother's hair is slightly longer than mine.
  2. We can modify superlatives with by far, easily and nearly.
    • Mario's is by far the best restaurant in town.
    • I'm nearly the oldest in the class.
  3. We do not use the with the superlative if there is a possessive.
    • His strongest point is his ambition.
  4. If the second part of a comparative or superlative sentence is clear from what comes before or from the context, we can omit it.
    • Going by bus is very fast, but the train is more comfortable.


2) Now follow this link and do the exercises.


Fuente: Created by Susan Zilberstein
Fecha: 12/10/2021 | Creado por: Susana Beatriz
Categoria: Grammar Time
Etiquetas: Zilberstein, Susan, 2020, B1+ Inglés, Almagro