Grammar Time!

 

To Infinitive, Bare Infinitive (or Infinitive without to) and -Ing Infinitive

 

 

We use 'to' + infinitive:

We use the bare infinitive (the infinitive without 'to'):

  • After modal verbs - I can meet you at six o'clock
  • After 'let', 'make' and (sometimes) 'help' - The teacher let us leave early
  • After some verbs of perception (see, watch, hear, notice, feel, sense) - I watched her walk away
  • After expressions with 'why' - why go out the night before an exam?

We use gerunds (verb + ing):

  • After certain verbs - I enjoy singing
  • After prepositions - I drank a cup of coffee before leaving
  • As the subject or object of a sentence - Swimming is good exercise

Use

Certain words are followed by an infinite verb with or without ‘to’.

 

Use and Word Lists Example
as the subject of a clause To know you is to love you.
after certain expressions (without ‘to’) Why not go to the cinema?
after certain verbs (without ‘to’) can swim.
after certain verbs (with ‘to’) He wants to swim.
after certain verbs with interrogatives (infinitive constructions) They don’t know how to swim.
after certain verbs with objects (without ‘to’) He made her swim.
after certain verbs with objects (with ‘to’) They wanted him to swim.
after certain adjectives and their comparisons It’s easier to swim downstream.
after nouns deriving from the verbs mentioned above We made a promise to swim. (derived from the verb ‘to promise’)

 -Ing form of the verb

 

Use

Certain words are followed by an Ing-Form.

Use and Word Lists Example
as the subject of a clause Cycling is good for your health.
after certain adjectives He’s afraid of going by plane.
after certain prepositions Before going to bed he turned off the lights.
after certain verbs enjoy cooking.
after certain verbs with prepositions I am looking forward to seeing you again.
after certain nouns We had problems finding our way back home.

Words followed either by Infinitive or Ing-Form

Use and Word Lists Example
same meaning I started to read. / I started reading.
same meaning but different use She forbids us to talk. / She forbids talking.
different meaning He stopped to smoke. / He stopped smoking.
infinitive or present participle I saw him go up the stairs. / I saw him going up the stairs.
 

 

 

Verb Lists: Infinitives and Gerunds

Principles of Composition
Verbs Followed by an Infinitive
She agreed to speak before the game.
agree
aim
appear
arrange
ask
attempt
be able
beg
begin
care
choose
condescend
consent
continue
dare
decide
deserve
detest
dislike
expect
fail
forget
get
happen
have
hesitate
hope
hurry
intend
leap
leave
like
long
love
mean
neglect
offer
ought
plan
prefer
prepare
proceed
promise
propose
refuse
remember
say
shoot
start
stop
strive
swear
threaten
try
use
wait
want
wish

 

Verbs Followed by an Object and an Infinitive
Everyone expected her to win.
advise
allow
ask
beg
bring
build
buy
challenge
choose
command
dare
direct
encourage
expect
forbid
force
have
hire
instruct
invite
lead
leave
let
like
love
motivate
order
pay
permit
persuade
prepare
promise
remind
require
send
teach
tell
urge
want
warn
Note: Some of these verbs are included in the list above
and may be used without an object.

 

Verbs Followed by a Gerund
They enjoyed working on the boat.
admit
advise
appreciate
avoid
can't help
complete
consider
delay
deny
detest
dislike
enjoy
escape
excuse
finish
forbid
get through
have
imagine
mind
miss
permit
postpone
practice
quit
recall
report
resent
resist
resume
risk
spend (time)
suggest
tolerate
waste (time
)

 

Verbs Followed by a Preposition and a Gerund
We concentrated on doing well.
admit to
approve of
argue about
believe in
care about
complain about
concentrate on
confess to
depend on
disapprove of
discourage from
dream about
feel like
forget about
insist on
object to
plan on
prevent (someone) from
refrain from
succeed in
talk about
think about
worry about

Follow these links and do the exercises.

http://www.perfect-english-grammar.com/gerunds-and-infinitives-exercise-1.html

http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises_list/gerund_infinitiv.htm

http://www.englishpage.com/gerunds/

http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/infinitive-gerund

 

Fuente: Created by Susan Zilberstein
Fecha: 12/8/2020 | Creado por: Susana Beatriz
Categoria: Grammar Time
Etiquetas: Almagro, Inglés, B1+, 2020, Susan, Zilberstein